White-nose syndrome (WNS) has been associated with the deaths of between 5.7 million and 6.7 million bats across the Eastern USA (19 states) and Canada (four provinces), according to the latest figures from the US Fish and Wildlife Service. In some hibernation sites, numbers have declined by 80-100% since 2006 when the condition was first identified.
The fungus asociated with WNS, Geomyces destructans, has also been identifed on a number of bats in Europe, including France, Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. However, unlike in the US, these findings have not been linked with mass mortalities. There have been no cases of WNS or G. destructans in the UK. Frequently asked questions.
White-nose syndrome in the UK
With the discovery of the fungus in Europe, the issue of WNS is high on BCT's agenda. With no confirmed cases of G. destructans at present, our main priorities in the UK are to raise awareness of WNS amongst bat workers and other cave users and ensure mechanisms are in place to identify and respond to suspect and positive cases quickly.
BCT has also been working with other organisations and researchers from the US and Europe to draft a Eurobats resolution. This resolution gives the key areas in which action is needed and will urge countries across Europe to comply. In particular the draft resolution recognises that action is needed:
To prevent the North American strain from reaching European bat hibernacula,
To monitor European hibernacula for the presence of fungi growing on bats,
To refer any such fungi for appropriate mycological investigation,
If bat deaths occur, to limit the spread of the fungus by human agency.
The draft resolution 6.7 Guidelines for the Prevention, Detection and Control of lethal fungal Infections in Bats can be viewed on the Eurobats website.
- Gargas et al. 2009, MYCOTAXON 108 (147–154) Original paper describing G. destructans in the US
- Broad Institute 2010, Report from US researchers who sequenced the genome of G. destructans
- Puechmaille et al. 2010, Emerging Infectious Diseases Details of the first confirmed diagnosis of G. destructanson a bat hibernating in France
- Wibbelt et al. 2010, Emerging Infectious Diseases 16: 8 (1237-1242) G. destructans in France, Germany, Switzerland and Hungary
- Martinkova et al 2010, PLOS ONE G. destructans in the Czech Republic and Slovakia
- Puechmaille, S.J., et al. 2011, PLos One 6(4) e19167 Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality.
- Lorch, J. M. et al. 2011, Nature doi:10.1038/nature10590 Experimental infection of bats with Geomyces destructans causes white-nose syndrome.
- Willis, C.K.R., et al. 2011, Integrative and Comparative Biology 51(3): 364-373. Evaporative Water Loss Is a Plausible Explanation for Mortality of Bats from White-Nose Syndrome.
- Warneckea, L. et al. 2012, PNAS online Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS online